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We find our clients are interested in learning more about spray science and technology.

Our principal consultant authored a feature report "Spray Technology Fundamentals & Applications: Game Winning Strategies --Understanding the fundamentals will help debunk misconceptions and enable better spray applications" appeared in the October 2008 issue of Chemical Engineering Magazine.

The references below are intended to be helpful as a source of information on sprays and spray applications for those new to spray technology and seasoned professionals. These references include books, review articles, and standards (ASTM, ISO, SAE, ASAE). These were generated by the ILASS Americas Industrial Technical Committee.

Spray Science and Technology References

Spray Reference Books
Title and Author  Year  Publisher  Comments
Bubbles, Drops, and Particles R. Clift, J.R. Grace and M.E. Weber  1978  Academic Press May be out of print
Droplet Separation Armin Burkholz  1989  VHC May be out of print
Atomization and Sprays Arthur H. Lefebvre  1989  Hemisphere  Basic reference for sprays and atomization, The most widely used!
Liquid Atomization L. Bayvel and Z. Orechowski  1993  Taylor and Francis  Basic reference for sprays and atomization and nozzle designer
Atomization of Melts: From Powder Production and Spray Deposition D. J. Yule, A. J. Yule, John J. Duckley  1994 Oxford University Press  Spray based materials processes
Spray Atomization and Deposition E.J. Lavernia and Y. Wu  1996 John Wiley & Sons  
Gas Turbine Combustion, 2nd edition Author H. Lefebvre  1996 Taylor and Francis  
Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles  C. Crowe, M. Sommer, and Y. Tsuji  1998  CRC Press Distributions, equations of motion for particle flows, particle dynamics, some diagnostics
Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles C. Crowe, M. Sommer, and Y. Tsuji  1999  Cambridge University Press  
Aerosol processing of Materials T.T. Koatas, M. Hampson-Smith  1999  Wiley-VCH  
 Dynamics of Droplets A. Frohon and N. Roth  2000  Springer-Verlag Drop physics and phenomenology
 Science and Engineering of Droplets H. Lui 2000   William Andrew (Noyes Publications) Droplet formation, fundamentals phenomenon and principles, Significant amount of information on atomization of melts
 The Mechanics of Inhaled Pharmaceutical Aerosols: An Introduction W. Finlay  2001  Elsevier Science  
Industrial Sprays and Atomization, Design Analysis and Applications G.G. Nasr, A.J. Yule and L Bending  2002  Springer-Verlag Overview of application of spray technology in a broad group of applications.
Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques A.P. Lisistsyn, N. Damaschke  2003  Springer-Verlag Overview of PDPA, LDA systems described in very great detail


Standard number Title Content
ASTM: E-799-92 Standard Practice for Determining Data Criteria and Processing for Liquid Drop Size Analysis Data representation and processing protocol
ASTM:E-1260-95 Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light Scattering Instruments Laser diffraction methods
ASTM: E-1620 Standard Terminology Relating to Liquid Particles and
Definitions of terms
ASTM: E-1458 Test Method for Calibration Verificaiton for Laser Diffraction
Particle Sizing Instruments Using Photomask Reticales
Laser diffraction detailed method for verification of performance
ISO 13320-1  Particle Size Analysis – Laser Diffraction Methods --
ISO 9276-1  Representation of results of particle size analysis- Part 1 Graphical Representation --
ISO 9276-2
Representation of results of particle size analysis- Part 2 Calculation of average particle sizes/diameters and moments from particle size distributions --
ASAE S572 Droplet sizing classification Size classification terms for agricultural sprays

Review Articles

Review Articles
Title Authors Date Reference
Injection, Dispersion, and Combustion of Liquid Fuels  W. D. Bachello 1994 Twenty Fifth Symposium (International) of Combustion/ The Combustion Institute, 1994 333-344
Drop and Spray Formation from a Liquid Jet S.P. Linn and R.D. Reitz 1998 Annual Reviews Fluid Mechanics, 1998 30:85:105
Views on the Structure of Transient Sprays G.J. Smallwoood and O.L.  Guilder 2000 Atomization and Sprays, V10 May 2000, pp 355-386
Fifty Year of Gas Turbine Fuel Injection A.H. Lefebvre 2000 Atomization and Sprays, V10 May 2000, pp 251-276
Spray Diagnostics for the 21st Century W. D. Bachello 2000 Atomization and Sprays, V10 May 2000, pp 439-475
Improving Droplet Breakup and Vaporization Models by Including High Pressure and Turbulence Effects I. Gokalp, C. Chauveau, C. Morin, B. Vielle, M. Birouk 2000 Atomization and Sprays, V10 May 2000, pp 475-510
Modeling Drop Size Distributions Babinsky and Sojka 2002  Progress in Energy Combustion Science 28 (2002), pp. 303–329